Moore’s Law is a law that says the number of transistors that can fit into a microchip will double every two years. This trend was first established in 1965 and the curve has followed this law ever since. The law cannot be followed forever because the amount of miniaturization will inevitably lead to failure.
Futurist Ray Kurzweil believes this curve will lead us into the singularity where technology will surpass human intelligence. What happens beyond this point is pure speculation, but believe it that this day is coming. Our future world could lay anywhere on a continuum from a scene in The Terminator, to The Jetsons. Kurzweil predicted that it will require a new technology to follow this curve, and more presumptuously suggests we will find it in time to keep the exponential curve going for years to come. Enter Graphene.
Graphene is a new material that could replace the silicon found in transistors. Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms that allow electronic conductivity at speeds 100 times that of silicon. The problem lies in the substrate in which to place the Graphene. There have been attempts to do it with diamond, but as you could imagine, it’s pricey. Penn State believes the answer might lie in nanoscale structures that they’ve demonstrated through a field effect transistor (FET) with graphene and boron nitride.
So what this means is that Kurzweil might have made yet another accurate prediction.
This article by Penn State provides more technical details: